太清博客
272月/’100

什么是达斡尔文?

满/达:ᡩᠠᡥᡡᡵ, Dahu'r,简中:达斡尔,繁中:達斡爾,拼音:Dáwò'ěr,日:ダウール,英:Daur, Dagur, Daguor, Dawar, Dawo’er, Tahuerh, Tahur

达斡尔语是中国达斡尔族所用的语言,使用者分布于内蒙古自治区呼伦贝尔市海拉尔区、黑龙江省齐齐哈尔市附近的嫩江流域、新疆维吾尔自治区塔城地区,属于阿尔泰语系蒙古语族东蒙古语支。

达斡尔文至今并没有国家或国际标准。

清朝时,达斡尔文用满文书写,只是增加了一些表示长元音的方法,当时称为达呼尔文。现在互联网上,一般用拉丁字母书写。【没有标准。】历史上,达斡尔文也曾经使用西里尔字母。

太清网上,达斡尔文指的是用满文字母书写的达斡尔文。

恩和巴图先生写过不少关于达斡尔文的书。下面观点来源于他的《达汉词典》。

1. 长元音

满语没有长元音,满文也没有表示长元音的方法。满文阿礼嘎礼中有长元音。

达斡尔语有长元音,所以,达斡尔文创造了表示长元音的方法。总体来说,比阿礼嘎礼中的方法简单。

2. 拼音zi

汉语拼音的zi在满文中变化规则很特殊,达斡尔文将其简化为zi’。

3. 字母f

达斡尔文的f写法同锡伯文的f,即永远出头。

 

What Is Daur Script?

Daur (Daur: ᡩᠠᡥᡡᡵ, DAO: Dahu'r, Simplified Chinese: 达斡尔, Traditional Chinese: 達斡爾, Pinyin: Dáwò'ěr, Japanese: ダウール) is also translated as Dagur, Daguor, Dawar, Dawo’er, Tahuerh or Tahur. The Daur language is a Mongolic language primarily spoken by members of the Daur ethnic group. There is no national or international standard of Daur script till now.

In Qing (Ch'ing) dynasty, the Daur language was written in Manchu script with a supplement of long vowels. In Internet, Daur is often written in Latin letters. Daur was also written in Cyrillic letters before.

In Daicing web site, the Daur script refers to the version in Manchu script.

Mr. 恩和巴图 (Merden Enhebatu) has written some books on Daur. The following opinions are based on his book: 汉达词典 (the Chinese-Daur Dictionary).

1) Long Vowels

There are no long vowels in written or spoken Manchu. (In Manchu Ali Gali, there are long vowels.)

There are long vowels in Daur. (They are easier than Manchu Ali Gali long vowels.)

Vowel a e i o u u'
Long Vowel ae ee ii oo uo [u'o]
Daur ᠠᡝ ᡝᡝ ᡳᡳ ᠣᠣ ᡠᠣ ᡡᠣ

The long vowel of u' is not used.

2) Pinyin zi

Pinyin zi was written as zi (ᡯᡳ) in Manchu, but it was written as zi' (ᡯᡟ) in Daur.

3) Letter f

Daur uses Sibe f instead of Manchu one.


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